2017年世界戏剧日宣言 | 伊莎贝尔·于佩尔:为戏剧让路!

发表于 讨论求助 2021-01-11 13:38:34


各位好,今天是世界戏剧日,自从1962年开始,国际戏剧协会(International Theatre Institute, ITI)将每年3月27日定为世界戏剧日,每年都邀请以为世界著名的戏剧工作者发表一篇宣言,宣言将被翻译成各国语言发布出来,也欢迎全世界的戏剧工作者朗读。


今年国际剧协所邀请的戏剧工作者,是很多朋友都非常熟悉的法国著名演员伊莎贝尔·于佩尔(Isabelle Huppert)。可能你未必熟悉她的戏剧作品,但是一定有不少人看过她的电影作品,并为之着迷。而过些日子,她也将带着她的剧场作品《朗读杜拉斯》来和北、上、广三地的中国的观众见面。


由于今年没有官方中文版,所以我找了朋友June陆老师帮忙协助翻译,为大家带来于佩尔阿姨在今年世界戏剧日上的宣言。



再一次,我们相聚于此,相聚于春天。自世界戏剧日大会首次举办,至今已经过去了55个年头。每年的这一天,这24小时,全世界将它献给戏剧。今天,我们在巴黎,这个吸引着世界各地戏剧团体的戏剧之都,来庆祝戏剧这门艺术。


巴黎是世界的,因而我们得以在这一天内纵览世界各地的戏剧传统;虽然身在法国的首都,我们却可以通过欣赏能剧和文乐木偶,将自己带到日本;通过观察京剧和印度卡塔卡利舞蹈迥然不同的理念和表达形式,我们仿佛回溯时间的长河;通过埋首于埃斯库罗斯和易卜生、索福克勒斯和斯特林堡的作品,舞台带领我们徜徉在希腊和斯堪的纳维亚之间;通过重新审视莎拉·凯恩和皮纳雷诺,我们能够在不列颠和意大利之间眨眼穿梭。在这24小时之内,我们可以从法国来到俄罗斯,从拉辛到莫里哀到契诃夫;我们甚至可以化为一道灵光,穿过大西洋,来到某位加利福尼亚州的年轻学生身边,指引他重新发现戏剧,在戏剧这方天地里青史留名。


是啊,戏剧具有如此强大的生命力,可以超越时间与空间;最前沿的作品,也是从几个世纪前的成就中获取养料;而最古老的经典剧目,随着一次又一次的重新演绎,也每每焕发出当代性和强大生命力。戏剧,从不惧于在灰烬里重生,从不吝于褪去旧壳、换上新装,这便是戏剧得以长生的秘密。


因而,世界戏剧日的意义并不在于挑出一天来罗列这一串赫赫之名。它使我们通过管窥来自全球的经典作品,进入一个广袤无垠的时空连续体。请恕我引用一位才华横溢但行事低调的法国剧作家让·达尔丢的话来简单说明:当我们考虑到空间,达尔丢认为不妨想想,“从一地到另一地最遥远的距离是多少?”对于时间,他建议这样测量,“念出‘永恒’这个词,需要几分之几秒?”而对于时空,他这样说,“入睡之前,在脑中绘制出空间里的两点,然后在梦中,计算从一点到另一点所需的时间。”就是这个“在梦中”,让我念念不忘。仿佛达尔丢和罗伯特·威尔逊曾在某时某地相遇。我们也可以通过引用塞缪尔·贝克特在《啊!美好的日子中》借女主人公维尼之口说出的话,来说明世界戏剧日这一天的特殊性:啊,这将已经确然是美好的一天啊!


当我非常荣幸地接受邀请来发表这篇演讲时,所有的梦,所有的场景都在我脑中浮现。可以说,今天我并不是独自一人踏上联合国教科文组织的讲台,每一个我曾经扮演过的角色都与我在一起。这些角色,看似仿佛随着大幕的落下而离开,却偷偷在我体内蛰居,时刻准备着成就或毁灭我将扮演的下一个角色:菲德拉、阿哈芒特、奥兰多、海达·高布勒、美狄亚、梅黛夫人、布兰奇·杜波伊斯……今天伴随着我站在你们面前的,同时还有所有我作为观众而深爱并为之鼓掌的所有角色。正因为如此,我属于整个世界。我来自希腊、非洲、叙利亚、威尼斯、俄罗斯、巴西、波斯、罗马、日本、纽约、马赛、菲律宾、阿根廷、挪威、韩国、德国、澳大利亚和英国,感谢这些聚集于我体内的角色们,使我成为一名真正的世界公民。也只有在这里,在舞台上,在剧院里,我们真正实现了全球化。


在1964年的世界戏剧日,劳伦斯·奥利弗宣布,经过一个多世纪的艰苦努力,英国终于成立了国家剧院,而他立刻决定将之改造成一个国际化的剧院,至少在剧目上做到如此。他深知,莎士比亚属于世界。在为撰写这篇讲稿做研究时,我很高兴地获知1962年的首届世界戏剧日宣言,交给了《80天再游世界》的作者让·考可多。这让我意识到,我是在以一种截然不同的方式环游世界。通过80部戏剧、或者80部电影。之所以提到电影,是因为我并不觉得戏剧表演和电影表演对我来说有什么区别。每次这么说的时候,我自己也感到很惊讶,但这是真的,我并不觉得两者有何不同。


站在这里发言的我,并不仅仅是我个人,不只是一个女演员,我只是一个载体,戏剧通过我和许许多多其他像我一样的人生存下来,我有责任接受这一事实。换句话说,戏剧并不是因我们而存在,而是因为戏剧,才有我们的存在。戏剧就是如此强大,它可以抵抗一切:战争、审查、贫穷。


有个表述已经相当确切,“舞台是一个不确定的时代里一块裸露的画布”,它所需要的仅仅是一名男演员,或女演员。他们会怎么做?他们会怎么说?他们会开口说话吗?观众等待着,并将得到答案,因为没有观众,就没有戏剧——千万别忘了这一点。哪怕只有一个人,也是观众。不过还是希望剧场不要有太多空座位吧!尤内斯库的作品,总是满座的。他所代表的艺术气概,通过剧终一位老妇的台词简洁而美妙地得到体现:“好吧,好吧,充满荣耀地死去吧。让我们死去,成为传奇,至少在那里我们拥有自己的道路。”


世界戏剧日设立已有55年了。在这55年里,我是第8位被邀请发表宣言的女性——姑且算它是“宣言”吧。我之前的发言者们(哈,男性同胞们是多么懂得自我表现!)谈到了戏剧如何通过想象力、通过自由、通过原创性来激发美,谈到文化多样性,也提出过没有答案的问题。仅仅在4年前的2013年,达里奥·福说道:“要应对我们面临的这场空前的危机,尤其是针对年轻戏剧从业者的诛杀,只有把希望寄托于一群流迁的艺术家,他们将通过找到全新的表达方式而崛起,从这重重围剿中找寻不可估量的资源。”不可估量的资源,听起来很像那么回事儿,值得放入任何政府的宏篇大论里去,你们觉得呢?


如今我身处巴黎,我们即将迎来一场总统选举,我想借此机会建议那些急于登上总统宝座的人们,要正视戏剧所能带来的不可估量的资源!我也同样强调,不要赶尽杀绝!


戏剧对于我来说,意味着与他人的交流、意味着远离仇恨。戏剧是“人间的友谊”,虽然我不太明白这到底意味着什么,但我相信社群、相信观众与演员间的友谊、相信由戏剧所带来的各种各样人群的永恒相伴——翻译人员、教育工作者、服装设计师、舞台表演家、学者、从业人士和观众们。戏剧保护着我们、庇佑着我们……我相信,戏剧爱我们,正如我们爱戏剧。


我记得曾与一位老派的舞台导演共事,每晚演出大幕升起之前,他必定全力高呼“给戏剧让路”,就让这成为我今天演讲的结语吧。


翻译:June, 本科毕业于华东师范大学对外汉语系,英国曼彻斯特大学艺术管理与文化政策专业硕士(with Merit)。



以下为英文版,翻译Malory Domecyn 和 Tom Johnson


So, here we are once more. Gathered again in Spring, 55 years since our inaugural meeting, to celebrate World Theatre Day. Just one day, 24 hours, is dedicated to celebrating theatre around the world. And here we are in Paris, the premier city in the world for attracting international theatre groups, to venerate the art of theatre. 


Paris is a world city, fit to contain the globes theatre traditions in a day of celebration; from here in France’s capital we can transport ourselves to Japan by experiencing Noh and Bunraku theatre, trace a line from here to thoughts and expressions as diverse as Peking Opera and Kathakali; the stage allows us to linger between Greece and Scandinavia as we envelope ourselves in Aeschylus and Ibsen, Sophocles and Strindberg; it allows us to flit between Britain and Italy as we reverberate between Sarah Kane and Prinadello. Within these twenty-four hours we may be taken from France to Russia, from Racine and Moliere to Chekhov; we can even cross the Atlantic as a bolt of inspiration to serve on a Campus in California, enticing a young student there to reinvent and make their name in theatre. 


Indeed, theatre has such a thriving life that it defies space and time; its most contemporary pieces are nourished by the achievements of past centuries, and even the most classical repertories become modern and vital each time they are played anew. Theatre is always reborn from its ashes, shedding only its previous conventions in its new-fangled forms: that is how it stays alive. 


World Theatre Day then, is obviously no ordinary day to be lumped in with the procession of others. It grants us access to an immense space-time continuum via the sheer majesty of the global canon. To enable me the ability to conceptualise this, allow me to quote a French playwright, as brilliant as he was discreet, Jean Tardieu: When thinking of space, Tardieu says it is sensible to ask “what is the longest path from one to another?”...For time, he suggests measuring, “in tenths of a second, the time it takes to pronounce the word ‘eternity’”…For space-time, however, he says: “before you fall asleep , fix your mind upon two points of space, and calculate the time it takes, in a dream, to go from one to the other”. It is the phrase in a dream that has always stuck with me. It seems as though Tardieu and Bob Wilson met. We can also summarise the temporal uniqueness of World Theatre day by quoting the words of Samuel Beckett, who makes the character Winnie say, in his expeditious style: “Oh what a beautiful day it will have been”. When thinking of this message, that I feel honoured to have been asked to write, I remembered all the dreams of all these scenes. As such, it is fair to say that I did not come to this UNESCO hall alone; every character I have ever played is here with me, roles that seem to leave when the curtain falls, but who have carved out an underground life within me, waiting to assist or destroy the roles that follow; Phaedra, Araminte, Orlando, Hedda Gabbler, Medea, Merteuil, Blanche DuBois….Also supplementing me as I stand before you today are all the characters I loved and applauded as a spectator. And so it is, therefore, that I belong to the world. I am Greek, African, Syrian, Venetian, Russian, Brazilian, Persian, Roman, Japanese, a New Yorker, a Marseillais, Filipino, Argentinian, Norwegian, Korean, German, Austrian, English – a true citizen of the world, by virtue of the personal ensemble that exists within me. For it is here, on the stage and in the theatre, that we find true globalization. 


On World Theatre Day in 1964, Laurence Olivier announced that, after more than a century of struggle, a National Theatre has just been created in the United Kingdom, which he immediately wanted to morph into an international theatre, at least in terms of its repertoire. He knew well that Shakespeare belonged to the world.


In researching the writing of this message, I was glad to learn that the inaugural World Theatre Day message of 1962 was entrusted to Jean Cocteau, a fitting candidate due to his authoring of the book ‘Around the World Again in 80 Days’. This made me realise that I have gone around the world differently. I did it in 80 shows or 80 movies. I include movies in this as I do not differentiate between playing theatre and playing movies, which surprises even me each time I say it, but it is true, that’s how it is, I see no difference between the two.


Speaking here I am not myself, I am not an actress, I am just one of the many people that theatre uses as a conduit to exist, and it is my duty to be receptive to this - or, in other words, we do not make theatre exist, it is rather thanks to theatre that we exist. The theatre is very strong. It resists and survives everything, wars, censors, penury. 


It is enough to say that “the stage is a naked scene from an indeterminate time” – all’s it needs is an actor. Or an actress. What are they going to do? What are they going to say? Will they talk? The public waits, it will know, for without the public there is no theatre – never forget this. One person alone is an audience. But let’s hope there are not too many empty seats! Productions of Ionesco’s productions are always full, and he represents this artistic valour candidly and beautifully by having, at the end of one of his plays, and old lady say; “Yes, Yes, die in full glory. Let’s die to enter the legend…at least we will have our street…”


World Theatre Day has existed for 55 years now. In 55 years, I am the eighth woman to be invited to pronounce a message – if you can call this a ‘message’ that is. My predecessors (oh, how the male of the species imposes itself!) spoke about the theatre of imagination, freedom, and originality in order to evoke beauty, multiculturalism and pose unanswerable questions. In 2013, just four years ago, Dario Fo said: “The only solution to the crisis lies in the hope of the great witch-hunt against us, especially against young people who want to learn the art of theatre: thus a new diaspora of actors will emerge, who will undoubtedly draw from this constraint unimaginable benefits by finding a new representation”. Unimaginable Benefits – sounds like a nice formula, worthy to be included in any political rhetoric, don’t you think?...


As I am in Paris, shortly before a presidential election, I would like to suggest that those who apparently yearn to govern us should be aware of the unimaginable benefits brought about by theatre. But I would also like to stress, no witch-hunt! 


Theatre is for me represents the other it is dialogue, and it is the absence of hatred. ‘Friendship between peoples’ – now, I do not know too much about what this means, but I believe in community, in friendship between spectators and actors, in the lasting union between all the peoples theatre brings together – translators, educators, costume designers, stage artists, academics, practitioners and audiences. Theatre protects us; it shelters us…I believe that theatre loves us…as much as we love it… 


I remember an old-fashioned stage director I worked for, who, before the nightly raising of the curtain would yell, with full-throated firmness ‘Make way for theatre!’ – and these shall be my last words tonight. 



简介


伊莎贝尔·于佩尔(Isabelle Huppert ),1953年3月16日生于法国巴黎,法国女演员。


1971年,出演个人首部电影《福斯汀与美丽的夏天》。1977年,因主演爱情片《编织的女孩》而被观众所熟知,并获得第30届英国电影学院奖最佳新人奖。1978年,凭借家庭伦理片《维奥莱特·诺齐埃尔》获得第31届戛纳国际电影节最佳女主角奖。1988年,主演爱情片《女人韵事》,并获得了第45届威尼斯国际电影节最佳女主角奖。1995年,凭借文艺片《仪式》获得了第二座威尼斯电影节最佳女主角奖以及第21届法国凯撒奖最佳女主角奖。1999年,获颁法国总统荣誉勋章。 2001年凭借伦理片《钢琴教师》再获戛纳最佳女主角奖。 2002年,因出演伦理片《八美图》获得了第25届欧洲电影奖最佳女主角和第52届柏林国际电影节银熊奖特别奖。


2009年,出任第62届戛纳国际电影节评委会主席。 同年还获得了第22届欧洲电影奖终身成就奖。 2012年,获得第12届马拉喀什国际电影节颁发的杰出成就奖。 2015年,凭借家庭片《爱之谷》提名第41届法国凯撒奖最佳女主角,她以第15次提名该奖项而打破了凯撒奖表演提名纪录。2017年2月24日,第42届恺撒奖颁奖典礼在巴黎落幕。荷兰导演保罗·范霍文的作品《她》收获最佳影片,该片主演伊莎贝尔·于佩尔也拿下演艺生涯的第二座恺撒影后奖杯。


===点击阅读2016年世界戏剧日宣言===




===点击阅读2014年世界戏剧日宣言===

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